-An enlighten viewpoint of teaching.
-Provides sounds in which philosophy and orientation to the whole process of teaching in which the selection of an instructional method is part and partial of.
- Embraces the entire spectrum of the process such that:
a. It specifies the major goal of teaching.
b. The given priorities among the tree domains, cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.
c. The role of teacher.
d. The expectations from students.
e. The nature of the teaching-learning process.
f. The kinds of evaluative technique and suitable teaching methods/ strategies to be employed.
Refers to an organized, orderly, systematic, well-planned procedure. A method direct and guide the teacher in all class activities and involves as well, the organization of materials to get things done.
ORGANIZATION OF MATERIALS CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO TWO
1. LOGICAL OGANIZATION
Aims to facilitate the recall or location and use of facts, ideas, materials, procedures, etc.
2. PSYCHOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
Is designed to facilitate learning of new things.
A technique is implementational and that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, or contrivance, used to accomplish an immediate objective.
A technique is also defined as a procedural variation of a given method. It involves a highly personalized style of carrying out a particular step of a given method.
TECHNIQUE IN THE LECTURE METHOD
1. OUTLINING TECHNIQUE
Involves a cognitive framework in which the subject matter presented from general to specific (from a broad topic to sub-topic, from the sub-topic to sub-sub topics). In outlining technique there is hierarchy of ideas developed from big to small, from complex to simple and from general to specific.
2. COMPONENT TECHNIQUE
Is exactly the reverse of the outlining technique. This time instead of breaking up the whole into parts, the lecturer should organize his ideas from small to large.
3. SEQUENTIAL TECHNIQUE
Provides the most effective, cognitive framework around which the whole lecture revolves.
4. RELEVANCE TECHNIQUE
Consists of four main steps namely:
a. Presentation of a central thought or singular idea ;
b. Giving all impressions about this idea.
c. Separating the correct impressions from the incorrect ones.
d. Concentrating the lecture on the explanation of the correct impressions.
5. TRANSITIONAL TECHNIQUE
Presents an in-depth treatment of a particular topic. It aims to expand and provide different but acceptable perspectives about the subject of the lecture.
TECHNIQUE IN THE DISCUSSION METHOD
1. SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE
Is breaking down the whole class into small groups in order in encourage and minimized free exchange of ideas about a familiar topic.
2. SOCIALIZED CLASSROOM DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE
Involves a free exchange of ideas between the class and teacher.
3. DIRECT INTRUCTION OR CLASSROOM TEACHING TECHNIQUE
In this technique, the teacher initially provides an information which will be adopted, and affirmed by the students. The students are expected to participate during the activity.
4. PANNEL DSCUSSION TECHNIQUE
Is a direct, conversational and interactional discussion among a small group of experts or well- informed persons.
5. RECITATION TECHNIQUE
(Graded or ungraded) is highly cognitive, highly teacher-directed, highly structured, student-dominated, and aimed at developing the study habits of students.
6. INTERVIEW TECHQUE
Involve inviting a resource person to the class and asking him to answer preconceived questions about the specific topic.
TECHNIQUE IN THE REPORTING METHOD
1. UNIT OR MORRISONIAN TECHNIQUE
Is the process of taking the contents of particular subjects as big blocks and not as isolated and fragmentary bits of information.
2. INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP REPORTING TECHQUE
This group reporting affords better participation. The individual is made to feel he is an important member of the group.
3. READING OR STORY –TEALLING TECHNIQUE
Pupils could simply be allowed to read from their book or to narrate their own experiences in relation to a given topic.
4. SCHEMATIC TECHNIQUE
A symposium is closely identified with school forum which is open to all faculty members and students. This kind of the technique, however, affords more student participation.
TECHNIQUE IN THE INVESTIGATORY METHOD
1. LABORATORY TECHNIQUE
Is a technique in which students actively manipulate and a study given problem.
TYPES OF LABORATORY TECHNIQUE
c. confirmatory type of laboratory technique
d. exploratory type of laboratory technique
STEPS OF LABORATORY TECHNIQUE
a. laboratory exercise
b. laboratory investigation
a. pre- laboratory discussion
b. activity proper
c. post laboratory discussion
2. PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUE
Requires a learner to work actively in the solution of a difficulty or an desirable situation.
TWO FORMS FOR SOLVING PROBLEM
Is solving a problem through a process of reasoning done either qualitatively.
Is solving a problem through a carefully laid down procedure.
TYPES OF CLASSROOM PROBLEMS
Problems could be either real (true-to-life) or imaginary (hypothetical or make-believe).
STEPS IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUE
a. identifying & defining a problem
b. formulating hypothesis
d. collection and organization of data
3. RESEACH TECHNIQUE
Is the technique least used by the teachers. The research technique is a careful and an organized study designed to serve a specific purpose.
TYPES OF RESEACH ACTIVITIES
a. Interviewing a chosen subject.
b. Making a simple survey
c. Constructing the historical episode of an individual, a community, an institution, etc.
d. Doing a simple experiment
STEPS IN DOING A RESEACH
a. preparing for the research work
b. collecting & gathering data
c. organizing the data obtained
d. analyzing and interpreting the data organized
e. making formal report of the research done
4. FIELD STUDY TECHNIQUE
Is a technique in which the students investigate or given situation by being a part or an integral component of it.
STEPS IN FIELD STUDY TECHNIQUE
b. actual investigation
c. making a formal report
d. class reporting
5. EXPERIMENTING TECHNIQUE
Is an operation carried out under controlled conditions to discover unknown effect or law, to test or establish a hypothesis, or illustrate a known law.
TYPES OF EXPERIMENTS
Requires students to strictly answer a set of predetermined questions.
Represents an “emerging” type of conducting this activity.
Types of experimentation shows to joint teacher-student involvement in the planning of an experiment.
EXPERIMENT CAN ALSO BE CLASSIFIED BASED ON THEIR SPECIIFIED PURPOSES
A. Methodological Experiments
B. Explanatory or Heuristic Experiments
C. Fact- Finding Experiments
D. Boundary Setting Experiments
STEPS IN THE EXPERIMENTING
a. designing an experiment
b. preparing for the experiment
c. conducting the experiment
d. obtaining results of the experiment
Refers to a classroom encounter whereby students are actively engaged in a first hand direct experience. This is a teaching method in which students participation is fully maximized.
TECHNIQUES OF THE ACTIVITY METHOD
1. Project Technique
2. Field Trip Technique
3. Dramatization Technique
4. Role-Playing Technique
5. Simulation Game Technique
6. Brainstorming Technique
7. Debate Technique
TECHNIQUES IN DEMONSTRATION METHOD
1. TEACHER-DIRECTED TECHNIQUE
The teacher performs the demonstration, especially when there is only one set of materials available for instructional purposes.
2. STUDENT- DIRECTED TECHNIQUE
Students, especially the most capable ones could be taught how to show a demonstration although it could be done with joint teacher-students participation.
3. TEACHER- STUDENT DIRECTED TECHNIQUE
The teacher [perform the demonstration to the students in helping in handing the material over to the teacher as he needs them during the demonstration.
4. RESOURCE SPEAKER- DIRECTED TECHNIQUE
An invited resource speaker could the demonstrating teacher himself.
TIME- TESTED METHOD
A. THE INDUCTIVE METHOD
Induction is simply defined as the process of arriving at given generalization. It starts from the known to the unknown, from specific to general, from the particular to universal, from simple to complex, and from to concrete to abstract.
STEPS OF THE INDUCTIVE METHOD
A. PREPARATION- the teacher describes the place and later the class identifies it.
B. PRESENTATION- the teacher expected results of the activity are the construction of a chart.
C. COMPARISON AND ABSTRACTION- analytical questions are raised of this point.
D. GENERALIZATION- the expected answer.
E. APPLICATION- show whether the understood the explanation.
B. THE DEDUCTIVE METHOD
The deductive method is a process of starting of generalization in arriving at a specific statement or conclusion namely: one which is not applicable to a class of objects, situations, or phenomena. We use generalization or rule or principle to arrive at a specific statement. In a broad sense, when the pupil thinks in a logical sequence in arrives at a specific item, he is deducting.
One well-known example of a deductive scheme of a formal argument. Usually consist of a major premise, a minor premise, in a conclusion.
STEPS OF THE DEDUCTIVE METHOD
B. Statement of a Generality
C. Explanation of the General Idea
APPLICABILITY OF INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE METHOD
The inductive method is best for the following purposes:
A. To make teaching-learning process more student-oriented.
B. To develop the higher levels of thinking among the learners.
C. To treat every topic in a more in-depth manner
The deductive method is designed to facilitate the explanation of relatively difficult in abstract topics to our student.
C. THE INTEGRATED METHOD
Integration is the process or practical of combining different elements in presenting them as one unifying whole. Can also intake place within a subject as in language teaching in which literature is usually related to grammar. It has been used in several instances like combining two subjects in the curriculum like science and health, music and physical education, social studies and character education
The integrated method combines two given methods or two techniques in one given lesson. The combination aims at making learning to a total process; what is learned in one method is further strengthened in the other method; or what one teaching method is lacks is properly compensated by the other.
SOME TEACHING METHODS THAT ARE USUALLY COMNBINE TO FORM INTEGRATED METHOD
A. Lecture Discussion
B. Demonstration – Lecture
C. Film-Showing- Discussion
D. Reporting - Discussion
E. E. Inductive - Deductive Technique
D. THE LECTURE METHOD
The lecture method is a teaching procedure or explaining and clarifying a major idea. It makes use of exposition which may be a narration or description. The main aim of the lecture method is to serve as a guide through a great mass of information characteristic of subject areas. The use of lecture is justified.
STEPS OF THE LECTURE METHOD
a. Preparation for the Lecture
b. Introduction to the Lecture
c. Giving the Body of the Lecture
d. Conclusion of the Lecture
E. TYPE STUDY METHOD
It is an inductive procedure except that only one case is studied.
STEP OF THE TYPE-STUDY METHOD
A. Selection of the Topic
B. Apperception and Motivation
C. Statement of a Typical Case
D. Study of Details
E. Comparing Details
E. PROBLEM METHOD
The problem method gives direction to a discussion and prevents wandering off from the topic. its stimulates reflective thinking and furnishes a guide for organizing ideas. Its direct alternation to the task to be done and it encourages concentration.
IT MAY BE USED IN TWO WAYS
1. A whole unit of subject matter maybe presented as a problem.
2. Problem- solving maybe one of the methods utilized in a unit of work.
STEPS OF THE PROBLEM METHOD
A. Recognition and Statement of the problem originating in a difficult or perplexing situation.
B. Statement of the Hypothesis-Inspection and Proposal of Situation or Situations.
C. Critical Evaluation of suggested solution.
D. Verification of Accepted Solutions.
G. THE PROJECT METHOD
A project is a significant, practical unit of activity of a problematic nature, planned and carried to completion by the student in a natural manner, in involving the use of physical materials o completes the unit of experience.
TYPES OF PROJECTS
1. Construction project
2. Employment project
3. Problem project
4. Learning project
STEPS OF THE PROJECT METHOD
H. THE LABORATORY METHOD
The laboratory method is teaching procedure dealing with first hand experiences regarding materials facts obtain from investigation on experimentation. It is experimentation, observation, or application by individuals or small groups dealing with actual materials.
TYPES OF LABORATORY METHOD
STEPS OF THEC LABORATORY METHOD
1. Introductory Step for Orientation and Motivation
2. Work Period
3. Culminatinating Activities
I. DEMONSTRATION METHOD
The demonstration method is sometimes called the imitative method. Learning a skill is faster and more effective when the students are shown how the job is done by using the actual tools, machines, and materials they are expected to work on the job.
STEPS OF THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD
C. Demonstration Proper
J. EXPOSE THE EXPOSITORY METHOD
EXPOSITORY METHOD is closely a Kind to the showing or telling method. It is used a great deal in the lower grades as there is much that need explaining. It is also used in the upper grades, in the secondary school, and even in college when something difficult needs explanation by the teacher.
STEPS OF THE EXPOSITORY METHOD
K. THE MORRISONIAN TECNIQUE OR UNIT METHOD
Henry C. Morrison, former superintended of schools in New Hampshire, is he proponent of the unit method
The unit method is the process of taking the contents of a particular subject as big blocks and not a isolated in fragmentary bits of information. The aim is to approach topic as an organized and integrated body, showing relevance and cognitive relationship.
STEPS OF THE UNIT METHOD
IMPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
A. DISCOVERY APPROACH
The discovery approach refers to an inductive method of guiding pupils to discuss and organize ideas and processes by themselves. It means them used ideas already acquired as a means of discovering ideas.
Process by which the children subtle direction go through the logical process of observation, comparison, and abstraction, generalization and application
TYPES OF DISCOVERY APPROACH
1. Guided Discovery
2. Pure Discovery
B. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH
This approach gives much emphasize on a given subject as an organized body of knowledge. Is organization of knowledge that makes it distinct from other kinds of information.
C. PROCESS APPROACH
The process approach may be defined as teaching in which knowledge is used as a means to developed student’s learning skills. The process approach is originated from and used to be a monopoly of science instruction. But today, it is identified primarily with skill-oriented subjects like practical arts, home economics, and even with knowledge laden subjects like social studies.
D. INQUIRY APPROACH
The inquiry approach is search for truth, information, or knowledge. The inquire approach is also a search for the solution through an exploration and evaluation of alternatives. Emphasizing the affective aspects of learning, it uses both the content and processes as means toward the developmental of qualities of the mind as curiosity, skepticism, intellectual honesty, and others. The inquiry approach can either be inductive or deductive.
E. UNIFIED APPROACH
The unified approach is defined as means of treating relationships that exist among the significant components making up a given body of knowledge. Its primary aim is to enhance the student’s learning by making them view things in their entirety or totality
F. PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION
Programmed instruction is an instruction in which the self-pacing method has a rightful place. Morris Bigge defined it as a system of teaching and leaning within which the subject matter is broken down into small, discrete steps and carefully organized into a logical sequence in which it can be learned readily by the students.
G. MODULAR INSTRUCTION
Modules as instructional materials have concretisized pretty well the principle the individual differences, allowing each students to proceed at his pace. Is a self-contained and independent unit of instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined objectives.
COMPONENTS OF A MODULE
2. Target Population
5. Instruction to the learners
6. Entry behavior and Prerequisites Skills
8. Pre-Test Feed Back And Evaluation
9. Learning activities
11. Post-Test Feed back and Evaluation
12. Teacher’s Manual or Guide
H. TEAM TEACHING
Is an approach that involves two or more teachers who work cooperatively with the same group p of students for some period of time. There is team teaching in the school if the teachers are formally organized as a team which dully recognized by school system.
SEVERAL LIMITATIONS OF TEAM TEACHING
2. Space and Facilities
3. The young and inexperience teacher may be given enough time to learn from his mistakes, to try out his own ideas.
TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING
Garcia (1989) states that a common error among teaches is to use interchangeably terms like approach, method, and technique. It is the fact the three foregoing concepts are all closely identified with the procedural aspects of teaching out they are basically different and distinct and although related to another.
The diagram below as an attempt to distinguish them
A Technique is part of Method and likewise